Detection of Helicobacter Pylori in the lacrimal sac mucosa of the patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction
Keywords:Helicobacter Pylori, acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, polymerase chain reaction, nasal mucosa, lacrimal sac mucosa.
AbstractHelicobacter pylori have been detected in sinonasal mucosa in both normal and pathologic condition. The nasolacrimal duct is within the medial wall of maxillary sinus and open into the nasal cavity, so ascending colonization of nasolacrimal duct and lacrimal sac is possible. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of H. pylori by polymerase chain (PCR) reaction in the nasal and lacrimal sac mucosa of the patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Eighty patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction who were scheduled for dacryocystorhinostomy enrolled in the study. The patients were asked if they suffered from the classic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (heart burn, regurgitation, and acid taste). Tissue samples from the lacrimal sac mucosa and nasal mucosa were obtained during dacryocystorhinostomy surgery. The tissues were analyzed for detection of H. pylori DNA by PCR. The mean age of patients was 41.96±14.7 years (age range, 17-84 Years). PCR for H. pylori DNA was positive in the nasal mucosa in 3 patients, in the lacrimal sac mucosa in 2 patients and in both nasal mucosa and lacrimal sac mucosa in 1 patient. Classic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were found in 16 patients (20%). It is possible to detect H. pylori in the lacrimal sac mucosa of some patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. More comprehensive studies are needed to determine whether H. pylori plays an etiopathologic role in the development of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:
1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.
2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.